Cancers of the bladder, ureters and kidneys may require treatment with surgery, chemotherapy and/or irradiation. Tumors involving the inside surface of the bladder can often be cured by trans-urethral resection and instillation of chemotherapy within the bladder. However, tumors that have invaded into the bladder muscle are much more difficult to control. These more invasive cancers may require surgical removal of the entire bladder (radical cystectomy). Selected patients may also be treated with localized, high-dose irradiation (often, with chemotherapy) – where Tomotherapy treatment can be helpful in minimizing bowel dose and side effects.
Treatment of cancers of the ureter and kidney often require surgical resections and chemotherapy, with irradiation often playing a lesser role due to the sensitivity of the kidneys and the small bowels.
Besides prostate cancer (detailed elsewhere), another cancer unique to men is testicular cancer. Seminoma, the most common variety, is very sensitive to irradiation, with 95% success after about 3 weeks of irradiation to the pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes on the side of the resected testicle. Given the length of the lymph node chain requiring irradiation, Tomotherapy is an excellent technique for minimizing the common side effects of nausea and diarrhea that may be caused by irritation of the gastrointestinal tract.